Casali, Paolo, M. D.

Department: Microbiology, Immunology & Molecular Genetics
Position: Zachry Foundation Distinguished Professor and Chairman
Phone Number: (210) 567-6612
Location: MED 5.007V

Personal Statement:

Dr. Casali’s research focuses on mechanisms of immunoglobulin locus activation and targeting, as well as regulation of genome-wide and specific gene expression by epigenetic marks and gut microbiota, in antibody/autoantibody responses and immune memory.


  • M.D., University of Milan, School of Medicine & Surgery, 1974
  • University of Milan, School of Medicine & Surgery, Specialty Diploma and Board Certification in Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 1976
  • University of Milan, School of Medicine & Surgery, Specialty Diploma and Board Certification in Microbiology and Virology, 1984


Knowledge in the biological and biomedical sciences continues to accelerate at a remarkably rapid pace. All of us are witnessing this extraordinary scientific revolution and almost endless application of today’s discoveries and modern technologies to improve tomorrow’s lifestyles and societal well-being. Recent observations concerning the influence of the microbiome on human health and disease further reinforce the fundamental contributions and influence of microorganisms on immunity, inflammation, nutrition, metabolic integrity, and neurological development. Therefore, a graduate focus in Microbiology and Immunology offers many exciting opportunities to become the multitalented, innovative and interdisciplinary scientist and educator required to compete in today’s evolving scientific world.

Our graduate program emphasizes interactive and self-directed courses in microbiology and immunology as well as meaningful exposure to other biomedical disciplines, which provides the appropriate and relevant intellectual balance and preparation. Advanced courses in many key areas of Microbiology and Immunology are available, so that students can build upon their expanding knowledge base. Furthermore, students learn to write and critique grant proposals, develop skills in communication, and discuss the ethical basis of scientific research and conduct. Thus, our responsibility to graduate students in the Microbiology and Immunology Program is to provide focused yet sufficiently broad educational and research experiences, so that each student encounters and utilizes state-of-the-art approaches to further their investigative talents and research explorations. This commitment will enable trainees to prepare for the range of exciting career choices that await them in the fields of academia, biotechnology, government, and numerous other cross-over professional specialties.

Dr. Casali’s Lab


(selected publications since 2000)

Complete List of Publications

  • Shen T., H.N. Sanchez, P. Casali and H. Zan*, 2017. A novel alternative sequential switch DNA recombination in class switching to IgA in human and mouse B cells. In preparation.
  • Zan H, Z. Qiu and P. Casali. 2017. Short-chain fatty acids enhance plasma cell survival through activation of Gpr43 signaling. In preparation.
  • Zan, H. Shen T., H.N. Sanchez and P. Casali. 2017. Sirt 1 modulates Aicda expression, class switch DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation by inhibiting NF-kB activity. In preparation.
  • Shen T., H.N. Sanchez, H. Zan* and P. Casali. 2017. Short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitor–mediated modulation of AID expression and class switch DNA recombination is reversed by estrogen through selective modulation of miR-126a. In preparation. (*corresponding authors).
  • Rivera, C., Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2017.  Induction of mature and neutralizing T-cell independent antibody response by BCR-TLR co-engagement through synergy of MyD88 with PI3K signaling.  In preparation.
  • Zan, H, T. Shen, Z. Qiu, H.N. Sanchez and P. Casali.  2017.  The methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet2 promotes class DNA recombination, somatic hypermutation and plasma cell differentiation.  In preparation.
  • Sanchez, H.N., T. Shen , J.R. Taylor, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2017.  Short-chain fatty acid histone deacetylase inhibitors produced by gut commensal bacteria regulate selected microRNAs to modulate local and systemic antibody responses.  Nature Immunol., submitted.
  • Zan, H., C. Tat, Z. Qiu, J.A. Guerrero, J. R. Taylor, T. Shen and P. Casali.  2016.  Rad52 competes with Ku70/Ku86 for binding to switch region DSB ends to modulate immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.  Nature Commun., submitted.
  • Lam, T., D.V. Kulp, R. Wang, Z. Lou, J., Taylor, Q. Zhong, Z. Wang, H. Zan, D. Ivanov, G. Zhong, P. Casali* and Z. Xu*.  2016.  Rab7 inhibitor impairs B cell class-class switching and plasma cell survival to dampen the autoantibody response in murine lupus [*equal contributors and corresponding authors].  J. Immunol., in press.
  • Vasquez, M.I., V.P. Luu, P.A. Hevezi, I. Catalan-Dibene, A.M. Burkhardt, J.L. Montero, I. Ushach, C.A. White, E.J. Pone, P. Casali and A. Zlotnik.  2016.  Identification of IL-40 as a novel B cell-associated cytokine.  Mucosal Immunol.,submitted.
  • Shen T, H.N. Sanchez, Z. Lai, P. Casali and H. Zan.  2016. Genome-wide analysis of HDAC inhibitor-mediated modulation of microRNAs and mRNAs in B cells induced to undergo class switch DNA recombination and plasma cell differentiation. J. Vis. Exp., in press.
  • Casali, P.  2016. DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation in the immune system. In: Lewin’s GENES XII, J.E. Krebs, E.S. Goldstein, S.T. Kilpatrick, Eds. (12th Edition), Jones & Bartlett Publishers.  Boston, Toronto, London, Singapore.  Chapter 16, pages 1-62.
  • Casali, P. and H. Zan2016.   Epigenetic of B cells and antibody responses.  Front.  Immunol.    PMID: 26697022; PMCID: PMC4677338
  • Pone E. J., Z. Lou, T. Lam, M. L. Greenberg, R. Wang, Z. Xu and P. Casali. 2015. B cell TLR1/2, TLR4, TLR7 and TLR9 interact in induction of class switch DNA recombination: modulation by BCR and CD40, and relevance to T-independent antibody responses.  Autoimmunity 48: 1-12.  PMID: 25536171; PMCID: PMC4625915.
  • Pone E. J., T. Lam, Z. Lou, R. Wang, Y. Chen, D.-F. Liu, A. L. Edinger, Z. Xu and P. Casali. 2015. B cell Rab7 mediates induction of AID expression and class-switching in T-dependent and T-independent antibody responses.  J. Immunol. 194: 3065-3078.  PMID: 25740947; PMCID: PMC4643723.
  • Shen, T., H.N. Sanchez, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2015.  Genome-wide analysis reveals selective modulation of microRNAs and mRNAs by histone deacetylase inhibitor in B cells induced to undergo class-switch DNA recombination and plasma cell differentiation.  Front. Immunol.  PMID: 26697020; PMCID: PMC4677488.
  • Lou, Z., P. Casali and Z. Xu.  2105.  Role of intracellular membrane-associated proteins in antibody responses: modulation by microRNAs in B cells.  Front. Immunol. PMID: 26579118; PMCID: PMC4620719.
  • Zan, H. and P. Casali.  2015.  Epigenetics of peripheral B cells differentiation and the antibody response.  Front. Immunol.  PMID: 26697022; PMCID: PMC4677338.
  • Zan, H. and P. Casali.  2014.  Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination.  In: Encyclopedia of Medical Immunology.    Vol. 1. Autoimmune Diseases, I.R. Mackay & N.L. Rose, Eds.  Springer-Verlag GmbH, Heidelberg, 2014. Pages 517-528. [Web Link]
  • Casali, P.  2014. DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation in the immune system.  In: Lewin’s GENES XI, J.E. Krebs, E.S. Goldstein, S.T. Kilpatrick, Eds. (11th Edition), Jones & Bartlett Publishers.  Boston, Toronto, London, Singapore.  Chapter 18, pages 459-507. [Web Link]
  • Zan, H., C. Tat and P. Casali.  2014.  MicroRNAs in lupus.  Autoimmunity 47:272-275. PMID: 24826805; PMCID: PMC4239026.
  • Morgado, P., D.M. Sudarshana , L. Gov, K.S. Harker, T. Lam, P. Casali, J.P. Boyle and M.B. Lodoen.  2014.  Type II Toxoplasma gondii induction of CD40 on infected macrophages enhances interleukin-12 responses.  Infect. Immun.  82:4047-4055. PMID: 25024369; PMCID: PMC4187859.
  • White, C.A., E.J. Pone, T. Lam, C. Tat, K.L. Hayama, G. Li, H. Zan & P. Casali.  2014.  Histone deacetylase inhibitors upregulate B cell microRNAs that silence AID and Blimp-1 expression for epigenetic modulation of antibody and autoantibody responses.  J. Immunol. 193:5933-5950. PMID: 25392531; PMCID: PMC4258531.
  • Luu, V.P., P. Hevezi, F. Vences-Catalan, C.A. White, P. Casali, J.P. Flores-Gutiérrez, L. Santos-Argumedo and A. Zlotnik.  2013.  Tspan33 is a novel marker of activated and malignant B.  Clin. Immunol.  149:388-399. PMID: 24211713; PMCID: PMC3956131.
  • Zan, H., C.A. White and P. Casali.  2013.  Regulation of Aicda expression and AID activity.  Autoimmunity 46:83-101. PMID: 23181381; PMCID: PMC3762583.
  • Park, S.-R., P.H. Kim, K.S. Lee, S.H. Lee, G.Y. Seo, Y.C. Yoo, J. Lee and P. Casali.  2013.  APRIL stimulates NF-kB-mediated HoxC4 induction for AID expression in mouse B cells.  Cytokine 61:608-613. PMID: 23178148; PMCID: PMC3723325.
  • Mai, T., E.J. Pone, G. Li, J. Moehlman, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2013.  Induction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase-targeting adaptor 14-3-3g is mediated by NF-kB-dependent recruitment of CFP1 to the 5’-CpG-3’-rich 14-3-3g promoter and sustained by E2A.  J. Immunol.  191:1895-1906. PMID: 23851690; PMCID: PMC3833273
  • Li, G., H. Zan, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2013.  Epigenetics of the antibody response.  Trends Immunol. 34:460-470.  PMID: 23643790; PMCID: PMC3744588.
  • Li, G., E.J. Pone, T. Mai, T.S. Lam, C.A. White, K.L. Hayama, H. Zan, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2013.  Combinatorial H3K9acS10ph histone modifications in IgH locus S regions target 14-3-3 adaptors and AID to specify antibody class switch DNA recombination.  Cell RepOrts.  5:702-714.  PMID: 24209747; PMCID: PMC3951903.
  • Lam, T.S., L.M. Thomas, C.A. White, G. Li, E.J. Pone, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2013.  Scaffold functions of 14-3-3 adaptors in B cell immunoglobuin class switch DNA recombination.  PLOS ONE 8: e80414, 1-15. PMID: 24282540; PMCID: PMC3840166.
  • Pone, E.J., Z. Xu, C.A. White, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2012.  Toll-like receptors in induction of immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination.  Front. Biosci. 17:2594-2615.  PMID: 22652800; PMCID: PMC4095906.
  • Pone, E.J., J. Zhang, T. Mai, C.A. Clayton, G. Li, P. Patel, A. Al-Qahtani, J. Sakakura, H. Zan, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2012.  BCR-signaling synergizes with TLR-signaling for induction of AID and immunoglobulin class-switching through the non-canonical NF-κB pathway.  Nature Commun. 3:767 (1-12). PMID: 22473011; PMCID: PMC3337981.
  • Xu, Z., H. Zan, E.J. Pone, T. Mai and P. Casali.  2012.  Immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination: induction, targeting and beyond.  Nature Rev. Immunol. 12:517-531.  PMID: 22728528; PMCID: PMC3545482.
  • Zan, H., C.A. White, L.M. Thomas, T. Mai,  G. Li, Z. Xu, J. Zhang and P. Casali.  2012.  Rev1 recruits Ung to switch regions and enhances dU glycosylation for immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination.  Cell Reports 2:1220-1232.  PMID: 23140944; PMCID: PMC3518390.
  • Li, G., E.J. Pone, D.C. Tran, P.J. Patel, L. Dao, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2012.  Iron inhibits activation-induced cytidine deaminase enzymatic activity and modulates immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination. J. Biol. Chem. 287: 21520-21529. PMID: 22556412; PMCID: PMC3375573.
  • Zan, H., J. Zhang, A. Al-Qahtani, E.J. Pone, C.A. White, D. Lee, L. Yel, T. Mai and P. Casali.  2011.  Endonuclease G plays a role in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination by introducing double-strand breaks in switch regions.  Mol. Immunol. 48:610-622.  PMID: 21111482; PMCID: PMC3412130.
  • Casali, P. 2011. DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation in the immune system.  In: Lewin’s GENES X, J.E. Krebs, E.S. Goldstein, S.T. Kilpatrick, Eds. (10th Edition),  Jones & Bartlett Publishers.  Boston, Toronto, London, Singapore.  Chapter 18, pages 570-623. [Web Link]
  • White, C.A., J.S. Hawkins, E.J. Pone, E.S. Yu, T. Mai, A. Al-Qahtani, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2011.  AID dysregulation in lupus-prone MRL/Faslpr/lpr mice increases class switch DNA recombination and promotes interchromosomal c-Myc/IgH loci translocations: modulation by HoxC4.  Autoimmunity 44:585-598.  PMID: 21585311; PMCID: PMC3762595.
  • Pone, E.J., H. Zan, J. Zhang, A. Al-Qahtani, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2010. Toll-like receptors and B-cell receptors synergize to induce immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination: relevance to microbial antibody responses.  Crit. Rev. Immunol. 30: 1-28.  PMID: 20370617; PMCID: PMC3038989.
  • Zhang, W., S. Dang, J. Wang, M.A. Nardi, H. Zan, P. Casali & Z. Li.  2010.  Specific cross-reaction of anti-dsDNA antibody with platelet integrin GPIIIa49-66.  Autoimmunity 43: 682-689.  PMID: 20828249.
  • Xu, Z., Z. Fulop, G. Wu, S.-R. Park, J. Zhang, E. J. Pone, A. Al-Qahtani, T. Mai, P. Steinacker, L. Thomas, C.A. White, Z. Li, J. R. Yates, III, B. Herron, M. Otto, H. Zan, H. Fu and P. Casali.  2010.  14-3-3 adaptor proteins recruit AID to 5′-AGCT-3′-rich switch regions for class switch DNA recombination.  Nature Str. Mol. Biol. 17:1124-1135.  PMID: 20729863; PMCID: PMC3645988.
  • Mai, T., H. Zan, J. Zhang, J.S. Hawkins, Z. Xu and P. Casali.  2010.  Estrogen receptors bind to and activate the HOXC4/HoxC4 promoter to potentiate HoxC4-mediated activation-induced cytosine deaminase induction, immunoglobulin class-switch DNA recombination, and somatic hypermutation.  J. Biol. Chem. 285: 37797-37810. PMID: 20855884; PMCID: PMC2988384.
  • Zan, H., J. Zhang, S. Ardeshna, M. Greenberg, Z. Xu, S.-R. Park and P. Casali.  2009.  Lupus-prone MRLfaslpr/lpr mice display increased AID expression and extensive DNA lesions, comprising deletions and insertions, in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus:  Concurrent upregulation of somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination.  Autoimmunity 42:89-103.  PMID: 19156553; PMCID: PMC3140875.
  • Park, S.-R., H. Zan, J. Zhang, A. Al-Qahtani, E.J. Pone, Z. Xu, T. Mai and P. Casali.  2009.  HoxC4 binds to the promoter of the cytidine deaminase AID gene to induce AID expression, class-switch DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation.  Nature Immunol. 10:540-550.  PMID: 19363484; PMCID: PMC2753990.
  • Atassi, M.Z. and P. Casali.  2008.  Molecular mechanisms of autoimmunity.  Autoimmunity 41:122-132. PMID: 18324481.
  • Al-Qhatani, A., Z. Xu, H. Zan, C. Walsh and P. Casali.  2008.  A role for Drak2 in the germinal center reaction and the antibody response.  Autoimmunity 41:341-352.  PMID: 18568639; PMCID: PMC3140869.
  • Zan, H., & P. Casali.  2008.  AID- and Ung-dependent generation of staggered double-strand DNA breaks in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination: a post-cleavage role for AID.  Mol. Immunol. 46:45-61.  PMID: 18760480; PMCID: PMC2975703.
  • Elkon, K., & P. Casali.  2008.  Nature and functions of autoantibodies.  Nature Rev. Rheum. 4:491-498. PMID: 18756274; PMCID: PMC2703183.
  • Xu, Z., S. Pal, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2007.  DNA replication to aid somatic hypermutation.  Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 596:111-128.  PMID: 17338180; PMCID: PMC3140876.
  • Duquerroy, S., E.A. Stura, S. Bressanelli, S.M. Fabiane, M.C. Vaney, D. Beale, M. Hamon, P. Casali, F.A. Rey, B.J. Sutton and M.J. Taussig.  2007.  Crystal structure of a human autoimmune complex between IgM rheumatoid factor RF61 and IgG1 Fc reveals a novel epitope and evidence for affinity maturation.  J. Mol. Biol. 368:1321-1331. PMID: 17395205; PMCID: PMC4625532.
  • Xu, Z., E.J. Pone, A. Al-Qahtani, S.-R. Park, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2007. Regulation of Aicda expression and AID activity: Relevance to somatic hypermutation and class switch DNA recombination.  Crit. Rev. Immunol. 27:367-397.  PMID: 18197815; PMCID: PMC2994649.
  • Eliakim, A., C. Swindt, F. Zaldivar, P. Casali and D. Cooper.  2006.  Reduced tetanus antibody titers in overweight children.  Autoimmunity 39:137-141. PMID: 16698670; PMCID: PMC4623573.
  • Komori, A., Z. Xu, X. Wu, H. Zan and P. Casali.  2006.  Biased dA/dT somatic hypermutation as regulated by the heavy chain intronic iE enhancer and 3’Eenhancers in human lymphoblastoid B cells.  Mol. Immunol. 43:1817-1826. PMID: 16412510; PMCID: PMC4621958.
  • Wu, X., C.Y. Tsai, M. Patam, H. Zan, J.P. Chen, S.M. Lipkin and P. Casali.  2006.  A role for the MutL mismatch repair Mlh3 protein in immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination and somatic hypermutation.  J. Immunol. 176:5426-5437. PMID: 16622010; PMCID: PMC4621967.
  • Casali, P., S. Pal, Z. Xu and H. Zan.  2006.  DNA repair in antibody somatic hypermutation.  Trends Immunol. 27: 313-321. PMID: 16737852; PMCID: PMC4623574.
  • Casali, P. and M.E. Alarcón-Riquelme.  2005.  Donato Alarcon-Segovia.  Autoimmunity 38:197-198.
  • Xu, Z., S. Fulop, Y. Zhong, A.J. Evinger, III, H. Zan, and P. Casali.  2005.  DNA lesions and repair in immunoglobulin class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation.  Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1050:146-152. PMID: 16014529; PMCID: PMC4621013.
  • Zan, H., N. Shima, Z. Xu, A. Al-Qahtani, A.J. Evinger, III, Y. Zhong, J.C. Schimenti and P. Casali.  2005.  The translation DNA polymerase plays a dominant role in immunoglobulin gene somatic hypermutation.  EMBO J. 24:3757-3769. PMID: 16222339; PMCID: PMC1276717.
  • Kim, E., C.R. Edmonston, X. Wu, A. Schaffer and P. Casali.  2004.  The HoxC4 homeodomain protein mediates activation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain 3′ enhancer hs1,2 in human B cells: relevance to class switch DNA recombination.  J. Biol. Chem. 279:42258-42269. PMID: 15252056; PMCID: PMC4631311.
  • Liu, S, A. Cerutti, P. Casali* and M.K. Crow*.  2004.  Ongoing immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination in lupus B cells: analysis of switch regulatory regions.  Autoimmunity 37:431-443.  PMID: 15621569; PMCID: PMC4624307.
  • Casali, P. and H. Zan.  2004. Class switching and Myc translocation: how does DNA break?  Nature Immunol. 5:1101-1103. PMID: 15496946; PMCID: PMC4625794.
  • Girardi, G., J. Berman, P. Redecha, L. Spruce, J. Thurman, D. Kraus, T. J. Hollmann, P. Casali, M. C. Caroll, R. A. Wetsel, J. D. Lambris, V. M. Holers and J. E. Salmon.  2003.  Complement C5a receptors and neutrophils mediate fetal injury in the antiphophospholipid syndrome.  J. Clin. Invest. 112:1644-654. PMID: 14660741; PMCID: PMC281643.
  • Riboldi, P., W. Ikematsu, B. Brambilla, C. Caprani, M . Gerosa and P. Casali.  2003.  Diversity and somatic hypermutation of the Ig VHDJH, VJand VJgene segments in lymphoma B cells: Relevance to the origin of the neoplastic B cell clone.  Human Immunol. 64:69-81. PMID: 12507816.
  • He B., N. Raab-Traub, P. Casali and A. Cerutti.  2003.  EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 cooperates with BAFF/BLyS and APRIL to induce T cell-independent Ig heavy chain class switching.  J. Immunol. 171:5215-5224.  PMID: 14607922; PMCID: PMC4625407.
  • Wu, X., H. Zan, A. Komori, J. Feng, E.C. Kim and P. Casali.  2003.  Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation: double-strand DNA breaks, AID and error-prone DNA repair.  J. Clin. Immunol. 23:235-246. PMID: 12959216; PMCID: PMC4624321.
  • Schaffer, A, E. Kim, H. Zan, L. Testoni, S. Salamon, A. Cerutti and P. Casali.  2003.  Selective inhibition of class switching to IgG and IgE by recruitment of the HoxC4 and Oct-1 homeodomain proteins and Ku70/Ku86 to newly identified and conserved ATTT cis-elements.  J. Biol. Chem. 278:23141-23150. PMID: 12672812.
  • Zan, H., X. Wu, A. Komori, A. Cerutti, W.K. Holloman and P. Casali.  2003.  AID-dependent generation of resected double-strand DNA breaks and recruitment of Rad52/Rad51 in somatic hypermutation.  Immunity 18:727-738. PMID: 12818155; PMCID: PMC4625537.
  • Casali, P.  2002. Remembrance: G. Jeanette Thorbecke, 1929-2001. Autoimmunity 35:75-78.
  • Diaz, M. and P. Casali.  2002.  Somatic immunoglobulin hypermutation.  Curr. Opin. Immunol. 14:235–240. PMID: 11869898; PMCID: PMC4621002.
  • Gurrieri, C., P. McGuire, H. Zan, X.-J. Yan, A. Cerutti, E. Albesiano, S. Allan, V. Vinciguerra, K. Rai, M. Ferrarini, N. Chiorazzi* and P. Casali*   2002.  Chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells can undergo somatic hypermutation and intraclonal immunoglobulin VHDJH gene diversification.  J. Exp. Med. 196: 629-639.  [*equal contributors]. PMID: 12208878; PMCID: PMC2194006.
  • Schattner, E.J., S.M. Friedman and P. Casali.  2002.  Inhibition of Fas-mediated apoptosis by antigen: implications for lymphomagenesis.  Autoimmunity 35:283-290. PMID: 12482198; PMCID: PMC4620740.
  • Litinskiy, M.B., B. Nardelli, D.M. Hilbert, A Schaffer, P. Casali and A. Cerutti.  2002.  Dendritic cells induce CD40-independent immunoglobulin class switching through BlyS and APRIL.   Nature Immunol.  3: 822-829.  PMID: 12154359; PMCID: PMC4621779.
  • Cerutti, A., H. Zan, E. Kim, S. Shah, E.J. Schattner, A. Schaffer and P. Casali.  2002. Ongoing in vivo immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination in chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells.  J. Immunol. 169:6594-603.  PMID: 12444172; PMCID: PMC4625981.
  • Cerutti, A., E. C. Kim, S. Shah, E. J. Schattner, H. Zan, A. Schaffer and P. Casali.  2001.  Dysregulation of CD30+ T cells by leukemia impairs isotype switching in normal B cells.  Nature Immunol.  2:150-156. PMID: 11175813; PMCID: PMC4621971.
  • Zan, H., A. Komori, Z. Li, A. Cerutti, M. Flajinik, M. Diaz and P. Casali.  2001.  The translesion DNA polymerase plays a major role in Ig and Bcl-6 somatic hypermutation.  Immunity 14:643-653. PMID: 11371365; PMCID: PMC4632985.
  • Di Simone N., P.L. Meroni, N. de Papa, E. Raschi, D. Caliandro, C.S. De Carolis, M.A. Khamashta, T. Atsumi, G.R. Hughes, G. Balestrieri, A. Tincani, P. Casali and A. Caruso.  2000.  Antiphospholipid antibodies affect trophoblast gonadotropin secretion and invasiveness by binding directly and through adhered β2-glycoprotein I.  Arthritis Rheum. 43:140-50. PMID: 10643710; PMCID: PMC4625538.
  • Stohl, W., G.C. Starling, P. Casali and P.A. Kiener.  2000.  Promotion of activated human B cell apoptosis and inhibition of immunoglobulin production by soluble CD95 ligand: CD95-based downregulation of Ig production need not culminate in activated B cell death.  Cell. Immunol. 203:1-11. PMID: 10915556.
  • Li, Z., E.W. Schettino, E. Padlan, H. Ikematsu and P. Casali. 2000.  Structure-function analysis of a lupus anti-DNA autoantibody: central role of the heavy chain CDR3 Arg in binding of dsDNA and ssDNA.  Eur. J. Immunol. 30:2015-2026. PMID: 10940891; PMCID: PMC4623572.
  • Zan, H., Z. Li, K. Yamaji, P. Dramitinos, A. Cerutti and P. Casali.  2000.  B cell receptor engagement and T cell contact induce BCL-6 hypermutation in human B cells: identity with Ig hypermutation.  J. Immunol. 165:830-839. PMID: 10878357.
  • Cerutti, A., A. Schaffer, R.G. Goodwin, S. Shah, H. Zan, S. Eli and P. Casali.  2000.  Engagement of CD153 (CD30 ligand) by CD30+ T cells inhibits class switch DNA recombination and antibody production in human IgD+ IgM+ B cells.  J. Immunol. 165:786-794. PMID: 10878352; PMCID: PMC4621014.
  • Schattner, E.J. and P. Casali.  2001.  The immune system.  In: Neoplastic Hematopathology.  2nd edition.  D.M. Knowles, ed. Lippincot, Williams & Wilkins Publishers, New York, pp. 43-92. [Web Link]
  • Phillips-Quagliata, J.M., A.M. Faria, J. Han, D. Spencer, G. Haughton and P. Casali.  2001. IgG2a and igA co-expression by the natural autoantibody-producing murine B lymphoma T560.  Autoimmunity 33:181-197. PMID: 11683378.
  • Ikematsu, H., A. Cerutti, H. Zan, D.M. Knowles, W. Ikematsu and P. Casali.  2000.  Ongoing hypermutation in the Ig V(D)J gene segments and the c-myc proto-oncogene of an AIDS lymphoma segregates with neoplastic B cells at different sites: implications for clonal evolution.  Human Immunol. 61:1242-1253. PMID: 11163079.